Fiberglass Reinforced Polyamide 66 Thermoplastic Composites

  • Suitable for high static load components used for long periods under high temperature conditions
  • Black PA 66 GF30 has stronger UV protection
  • The fatigue resistance limit is 2.5 times that of PA-GF
  • Cater to the many requirements of the market
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Thermoplastic skins or laminate sheets are composite sheets composed of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic (CFRT) unidirectional prepreg tapes, arranged in one or more combinations of fiber orientations, such as 0°, 45°, -45°, 90°, etc.

These sheets are manufactured through a process involving both hot and cold pressing.

Additionally, they can be integrated with high-performance core materials, including honeycomb sandwich panels, PET foams, polyurethane panels, among others, or can be combined with non-woven materials to create innovative sandwich composite panels

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Double Belt Press Machine

Jota Machinery: Your Reliable CFRTP CFRP Prepreg Machine Manufacturer in China

Jota is the original CFRTP CFRP prepreg machine manufacturer here in China.

With our own factory and CNC center, equipment quality could be effectively guaranteed.

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CFRT Composite Sandwich Panels

  • Thermoplastic composites have more impact strength than short fiber
  • The core material can be foam or PP/PET honeycomb
  • An ideal lightweight advanced product in the 21st century
  • Working for RVs, EVs and refrigerated containers
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Enhancing Nylon: The Role of Glass Fiber Reinforcement in PA6 and PA66 Materials

Nylon or polyamide (PA) reinforced materials are made by using PA6/PA66 resin as the base material and adding a certain proportion of fiberglass for modification.

Since nylon itself lacks strength, adding 10-30% fiber can increase its strength.

Particularly, 30% strength is recognized as the most suitable proportion.

There are also proportions added up to 40-50%, which, with appropriate formulations according to the specific requirements of different products, can also be successful.

PA66 belongs to polyamide, with amino groups on its main chain. Amino groups are polar and tend to crystallize due to the attraction caused by hydrogen bonds, thus making nylon easy to crystallize and capable of producing high-strength fibers.

Polyamide is a tough, horny, semi-transparent, or milky-white crystalline resin, often made into cylindrical pellets.

The molecular weight of polyamide used for plastic is generally between 15,000 and 20,000.

However, due to nylon’s high-water absorption, poor acid resistance, low dry and low-temperature impact strength, and deformation after water absorption, the dimensional stability of products is affected, limiting its application range.

The mechanical properties of nylon with added glass fibers and toughening agents as mixed materials show that with an increase in glass fiber content, the tensile strength and bending strength of the material significantly increase.

PA IN car
Fiberglass Reinforced Polyamide(PA)

Impact strength is more complex; with the addition of toughening agents, the toughness of the material greatly increases.

Adding 30% to 35% glass fiber and 8% to 12% toughening agent achieves the best comprehensive mechanical properties for the material.

Using reinforced materials to enhance the performance of nylon, glass fibers, asbestos fibers, carbon fibers, titanium metals, etc., can be used as reinforcement materials, among which glass fibers are mainly used.

They improve the heat resistance, dimensional stability, rigidity, and mechanical properties (tensile and bending strength) of nylon, especially enhancing mechanical performance significantly, making it an excellent engineering plastic.

Glass fiber-reinforced nylon has two types: long fiber reinforcement and short fiber reinforcement, which can be divided into:

  1. Long fiberglass reinforced polyamide(PA)  produced by the wrapping method.
  2. Short glass fiber-reinforced nylon produced by mixing short-cut fibers, or by continuous fiber introduction into a twin-screw extruder for continuous shearing and mixing.

Precautions for fiberglass reinforced polyamide 66:

  1. The molding process of glass fiber is roughly the same as that of unreinforced materials, but because the flowability is worse than before reinforcement, the injection pressure and injection speed should be appropriately increased, and the barrel temperature should be increased by 10-40°C.
  2. Since glass fibers tend to orient along the flow direction during the injection molding process, causing mechanical properties and shrinkage rates to be enhanced in the orientation direction, resulting in product deformation and warpage, the position and shape of the gate should be reasonable during mold design. The mold temperature can be increased during processing, and the product should be slowly cooled in hot water after removal.
  3. Additionally, the larger the proportion of added glass fibers, the greater the wear on the plasticizing components of the injection molding machine. It is best to use bimetallic screws and barrels.

30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6-modified slices are ideal materials for processing electric tool housings, electric tool components, engineering machinery parts, and automotive components.

Their mechanical properties, dimensional stability, heat resistance, and aging resistance are significantly improved, with fatigue strength being 2.5 times that of unreinforced materials, making the modification effect most pronounced.

The injection molding process for 30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6 slices is generally the same as that for unreinforced materials, but because the flowability is worse than before reinforcement, injection pressure and injection speed should be appropriately increased.

Key points for processing include:

The barrel temperature for 30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6 is easily increased by 10-40°C.

The selection of barrel temperature during injection molding of PA6-modified slices depends on factors such as the performance of the slices themselves, equipment, and the shape of the product.

Excessively high barrel temperature can cause discoloration, brittleness, and other defects in the product, while too low a barrel temperature can cause material hardening and damage to the mold and screw.

The melting temperature of PA6 is as low as 220°C, and since nylon has good fluidity, it flows rapidly once the temperature exceeds its melting point.

The flowability of 30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6-modified slices decreases significantly compared to pure material slices and injection-grade PA6 slices, so the barrel temperature can be increased by 10-20°C.

The mold temperature for 30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6 should be controlled between 80-120°C.

fiberglass ud tape
Thermoplastic fiberglass UD tape

Mold temperature affects crystallinity and molding shrinkage. The mold temperature range is 80-120°C.

For products with high wall thickness, a higher mold temperature should be selected, which increases crystallinity, wear resistance, hardness, and elastic modulus, decreases water absorption, and increases molding shrinkage.

Products with thin walls should choose lower mold temperatures, resulting in lower crystallinity, good toughness, higher elongation, and reduced shrinkage.

For wall thicknesses greater than 3mm, it is recommended to use low-temperature molds between 20-40°C.

The mold temperature for 30% glass fiber-reinforced materials should be above 80°C.

The wall thickness of products made from 30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6 should not be less than 0.8mm.

The flow length ratio of PA6 is between 150-200, so the wall thickness of the product should not be less than 0.8mm, generally selected between 1-3.2mm.

The shrinkage of products made from 30% glass fiber-reinforced PA6 is related to their wall thickness; the thicker the wall, the greater the shrinkage.

Vent holes should be controlled below 0.025mm.

The flash value of 30% glass fiber reinforced PA6 resin is about 0.03mm, so the vent holes should be controlled below 0.025mm.

The gate diameter should not be less than 0.5*t (t is the thickness of the plastic part).

For submerged gates, the minimum diameter should be 0.75mm.

The shrinkage rate of products made from 30% glass fiber reinforced PA6 can be reduced to 0.3%.

The shrinkage rate of pure PA6 is between 1%-1.5%, which can be reduced to around 0.3% after adding 30% glass fiber reinforcement.

Practical experience shows that the more glass fiber is added, the smaller the molding shrinkage rate of PA6 resin.

However, with increasing fiber content, there may be consequences such as surface fiber floating and poor compatibility.

A 30% glass fiber(GF) reinforcement effect is relatively good.

The use of recycled materials in PA66-GF30 should not exceed three times.

30% glass fiber reinforced PA6 does not contain any recycled materials, but excessive use of recycled materials by customers can cause discoloration of products or a sharp decline in mechanical and physical properties.

The amount used should be controlled below 25% to avoid fluctuations in process conditions.

Recycled materials must be dried before mixing with new materials.

Use a small and uniform amount of mold release agent.

Mold release agents for 30% glass fiber reinforced PA6 products can be zinc stearate and white oil, or they can be mixed into a paste for use.

A small amount of mold release agent can improve and eliminate defects such as bubbles.

When using, the amount should be small and uniform to avoid surface defects in the product.

After demolding, the product should be slowly cooled in hot water.

Because glass fibers tend to orient along the flow direction during injection molding, causing mechanical properties and shrinkage rates to be enhanced in the orientation direction, resulting in product deformation and warpage.

PA GF product
30% PA/GF

Therefore, during mold design, the position and shape of the gate should be reasonable.

It is advisable to increase the mold temperature during processing, and after demolding, the product should be slowly cooled in hot water.

Products made from PA66-GF30  for use in high-temperature environments should undergo moisture adjustment treatment.

Boiling water adjustment method or potassium acetate solution adjustment method can be used.

For boiling water adjustment, place the product in an environment with a humidity of 65% until it reaches the equilibrium moisture absorption level.

For potassium acetate solution adjustment (with a ratio of potassium acetate to water of 1.25:1, boiling point 121°C), the treatment temperature is 80-100°C.

The treatment time mainly depends on the thickness of the product; for a thickness of 1.5mm, it takes about 2 hours, for 3mm, about 8 hours, and for 6mm, about 16-18 hours.

Applications of fiberglass reinforced polyamide 66:

Compared with pure PA66, PA66+GF has greatly improved mechanical properties, making it more widely used in the automotive industry, such as cylinder head covers, engine mounts and covers, door handles, lock systems, wheel decorations, car door handles, ashtrays, switches, etc.

The heat distortion temperature of PA66+GF is increased from 70°C to over 220°C, and its aging resistance is significantly improved.

It can be safely used in automotive, mechanical, chemical, and other fields to manufacture heat-resistant structural components, such as car pressure tanks, air intake manifolds, throttle bodies, radiator grooves, fan blade covers, etc.

The mold shrinkage rate of glass fiber-filled PA66 has been reduced from the original 1.5%-1.8% to 0.2%-0.3%, making PA66 products smooth and without warping, with more stable dimensions. It is widely used in precision components such as gears and coil frames.

The corrosion resistance of PA66+GF has also been significantly improved, meeting the requirements for use in automotive radiator tanks, intermediate brackets for radiators, water inlet fittings, oil pans, oil tanks, oil level gauges, and car water chambers.

Compared with pure PA66, glass fiber reinforced PA66 has greatly improved mechanical strength, rigidity, heat resistance, creep resistance, and fatigue strength, with decreased elongation, molding shrinkage, and moisture absorption.

In summary, fiberglass reinforced polyamide 66 has high specific strength, good heat resistance, electrical properties, abrasion resistance, high impact resistance, simple processing methods, low production costs, high efficiency, and economic and environmental benefits.

It expands the application space of PA66 products in the automotive and electronics industries and is widely used in high-end applications such as mechanical components, covers, fan blades, automotive cooling water tanks, gears, coil frame, toothed belt covers, chain guides, and window insulation profiles.

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